If Robotic vision is your thing then a name you need to know is Bob Mottram. Bob has been pioneering stereoscopic vision software for a long time now and is very generous with posting information about his work.
Sentience is a stereoscopic vision and mapping system for mobile robots. It was developed initially as part of the Rodney humanoid robot project, and has been refined over several years. The system uses cheap low resolution webcam technology to acquire images and calculate a depth map from them.